CFPB Begins Study of Arbitration Clauses, Extends Comment Period for Overdraft Inquiry

On April 24, the CFPB released a request for information to inform its study of the use and impact of arbitration clauses in consumer financial services agreements. Through June 23, 2012, the CFPB is seeking information from the public regarding (i) the prevalence of use of these arbitration clauses, (ii) what claims consumers bring in arbitration against financial services companies, (iii) whether claims are brought by financial services companies against consumers in arbitration, and (iv) how consumers and companies are affected by actual arbitrations and outside of actual arbitrations. The study is required by the Dodd-Frank Act and must be completed before the CFPB can begin exercising its Dodd-Frank authority to conduct rulemakings regarding arbitration agreements. Therefore, at this time the CFPB is not seeking comments on whether and how the use of such agreements should be regulated.

The CFPB also this week extended through June 29, 2012, the comment period for its inquiry into overdraft programs and their costs, benefits, and risks to consumers.


Fannie Mae Alters Policies for Preforeclosure Sale Process, Delinquency Management, Default Prevention

On April 25, Fannie Mae issued Servicing Guide Announcement SVC-2012-06, which sets new policies and clarifies several delinquency management and default prevention requirements related to (i) electronic submission of borrower response package documents, (ii) income documentation for employed borrowers, (iii) determining monthly gross income, (iv) modifications of loans secured by leasehold estates, (v) property valuation, and (vi) executing and recording modification agreements. The majority of the changes are effective immediately. The new requirements for determining income are effective for loans evaluated on or after July 1, 2012.

On the same date, Fannie Mae also published Announcement SVC-2012-07 to establish new policies to expedite the preforeclosure sale process. For all conventional mortgage loans held in Fannie Mae’s portfolio, those purchased for Fannie Mae’s portfolio but subsequently securitized into Fannie Mae MBS pools, and those originally delivered as part of an MBS pool, the policies (i) establish maximum required response times for preforeclosure sale offers submitted for consideration, (ii) require servicers to provide borrowers with status updates during the evaluation process, and (iii) allow servicers to respond to unsolicited preforeclosure sale offers without first requiring an evaluation for a HAMP modification. Servicers are encouraged to adopt these policies immediately, but must do so no later than June 25, 2012. The Announcement reminds servicers that Fannie Mae may pursue any of its available remedies for failure to comply with these new policies.


Seventh Circuit Dismisses FACTA Truncation Class Action

On April 18, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit dismissed a class action seeking damages against Shell under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACTA) for displaying four digits of customers’ credit card numbers on receipts printed at Shell gas stations. Van Straaten v. Shell Oil Products Co. LLC, No. 11-8031, 2012 WL 1340111 (7th. Cir. Apr. 18, 2012). FACTA requires that such receipts truncate card numbers to display no more than the last five digits of the card number. Shell’s practice was to print the last four digits of what it calls the “primary account number,” which is the number appearing before the last five digits of the sequence of numbers appearing on the front of the credit card. The plaintiffs did not allege that Shell’s practice created a risk of identity theft, but that Shell violated FACTA by printing the wrong four numbers. Writing for a three-judge panel, Chief Judge Frank Easterbrook indicated that FACTA does not define the term “card number,” but the panel did not have to define the term, “because we can’t see why anyone should care how the term is defined.” He added that ”[a] precise definition does not matter as long as the receipt contains too few digits to allow identity theft.” As to FACTA’s authorization of $100 to $1,000 for each willful violation, Judge Easterbrook noted that “[a]n award of $100 to everyone who has used a Shell Card at a Shell station would exceed $1 billion, despite the absence of a penny’s worth of injury.”  Because Shell now prints no such digits on its receipts, “the substantive question in this litigation will not recur for Shell or anyone else; it need never be answered.”


FinCEN Reports Increased Mortgage Fraud SARs

On April 23, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) released an update on mortgage loan fraud suspicious activity reports (SARs) for 2011. The report indicates that mortgage fraud SARs increased 31 percent in 2011 compared to 2010, a spike that FinCEN states is directly attributable to mortgage repurchase demands and special filings generated by several institutions. Based on a sample analysis, FinCEN found that in 40 percent of cases resulting in a SAR, the institution turned down the subject’s loan application, short sale request, or debt elimination because of the suspected fraud, indicating improvement in mortgage lending due diligence. Among other things, the report highlights short sales, appraisals, and identity theft as new fraud patterns in 2011 SARs.


Freddie Mac Adjusts Residential Loan Mitigation Options

On April 23, Freddie Mac issued Servicer Guide Bulletin 2012-10, which expands and adjusts certain loss mitigation options to offer additional assistance to struggling borrowers. With regard to state housing finance agency borrower assistance programs, the Bulletin provides requirements for servicer participation in programs funded by the Hardest Hit Fund, and consolidates all requirements related to participation in such programs. Among other things, the Bulletin also implements a previously announced extension of the HAMP and HAFA programs through December 2013, and revises HAMP eligibility requirements for permanent modifications.