On January 5, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued a new accounting standard which “‘is intended to provide users of financial statements with more useful information on the recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments.’” The new Accounting Standards Update (ASU) impacts public and private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans that hold financial assets or owe financial liabilities. The new guidance is intended to make targeted improvements to existing GAAP by, among several other things, generally only requiring that changes in the fair value of equity investments be recorded in net income and requiring public business entities to use the exit price notion when measuring the fair value of financial instruments for disclosure purposes. The ASU will take effect for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017 (including interim periods within those fiscal years), and for private companies, not-for-profit organizations, and employee benefit plans for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 (and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019). Early adoption of certain provisions is permitted.
Recently, the CFPB released a fact sheet that provides a basic outline for applying Know Before You Owe mortgage disclosures to constructions loans. Specifically, the fact sheet notes that (i) most construction loans are covered by the Know Before You Owe mortgage disclosures, with the exception of those that are open-end transactions or for commercial purposes; and (ii) Regulation Z’s existing provisions for disclosures for certain construction loans and construction-to-permanent loans continue to apply. In addition, the fact sheet provides guidance regarding a creditor’s choice to disclose a construction loan with permanent financing as one or two transactions. According to the fact sheet, the CFPB may release additional guidance to facilitate compliance with the Know Before You Owe mortgage disclosure rule, including a possible webinar regarding construction loan disclosures.
On May 12, Governor Larry Hogan (R-MD) signed HB 313, which will require auto dealers to provide notice to the purchaser/lessee before the dealer-arranged third-party financing is approved. The law requires the dealer to “notify a buyer in writing if the terms of a certain financing or lease agreement are not approved by a third-party finance source within a certain period of time.” Specifically, the dealer has four days from the delivery of the vehicle to notify the purchase/lessee of the third-party rejection. If the sale of the vehicle is canceled, the purchaser/lessee must return the vehicle to the dealer within two days of receiving the written notice. The new law is effective October 1, 2015.
On April 15, the CFPB issued a final rule temporarily suspending credit card issuers’ obligation to submit their card agreements to the CFPB, as required by the Credit Card Accontability, Responsibility, and Disclosure Act (CARD Act). The CARD Act, as implemented by TILA and Reg. Z (12 C.F.R. 1026.58), requires credit card issuers to submit credit card agreements to the Bureau on a quarterly basis. The first submission was set to be the first business day on or after April 30, 2015, but under the one-year reprieve, credit card issuers will not be required to begin submitting credit card agreements to the Bureau until April 30, 2016. According to the CFPB, during the temporary suspension, the regulator will “work to develop a more streamlined and automated electronic submission system.” The CFPB contends that the new system will allow for easier submission of credit card agreements than the manual submission system currently in place. Other requirements in Section 1026.58, including the requirement that credit card issuers post their credit card agreements on their own public website, remain unaffected by the temporary suspension.
On March 31, the CFPB announced a new toolkit as part of its “Know Before You Owe” mortgage initiative. Designed to “help customers understand the nature and costs of real estate settlement services,” the step-by-step guide includes worksheets, checklists, and research tips for consumers. The new toolkit replaces an existing HUD booklet that creditors provide to mortgage applicants. The release of the toolkit precedes the August 1 effective date for the TILA/RESPA integrated disclosure rule, giving the industry “time to order and receive or print the new toolkit and integrate electronic versions into their mortgage origination systems.”
On February 24, the CFPB announced a proposed rule that would reduce the burden of credit card issuers by suspending – for one year – their obligation to submit credit card agreements to the CFPB on a quarterly basis. The proposed rule would be in effect while the CFPB works to establish a “more streamlined and automated electronic submission system” that would make it easier for issuers to submit the agreements. The proposal amends the 2009 CARD Act, which established the requirement that issuers submit consumer credit card agreements to the CFPB. During the proposed one-year suspension, other requirements of the CARD Act would remain in place, such as the issuers’ “obligations to post currently-offered agreements on their own websites.” Comments on the proposed rule are due by March 13. Credit card issuers would resume submitting credit card agreements on a quarterly basis to the CFPB starting on April 30, 2016.
On October 20, the CFPB finalized its amendment to Regulation P, which requires that financial institutions meet specific consumer data-sharing requirements, including the delivery of annual privacy notices. Under the new rule, bank and nonbank institutions under the CFPB’s jurisdiction will now be allowed to post privacy notices online, rather than deliver an annual paper copy. Institutions that choose to post notices online must meet certain conditions, including (i) providing notice to consumers if the institution shares any data to third parties, in addition to providing an opportunity to opt out of such sharing; and, (ii) using the 2009 model disclosure form developed by federal regulatory agencies. The institutions that choose to rely on the new delivery method must (i) ensure that customers are aware of the notices posted online; (ii) provide paper copies within ten days of a customer’s request; and, (iii) make customers aware that the privacy notice(s) are available online—and that a paper copy will be provided at the customer’s request—by inserting a “clear and conspicuous statement at least once per year on an account statement, coupon book, or a notice or disclosure.” As outlined when the proposed rule was issued in May, the CFPB anticipates that the rule will: (i) provide consumers with constant access to privacy notices; (ii) limit the amount of an institution’s data sharing with third parties; (iii) educate consumers on the various types of privacy policies available to them; and, (iv) reduce the cost for companies to provide privacy notices.
Recently, the SEC issued a final rule to update its EDGAR system to support changes to the disclosure, reporting, and offering process for asset-backed securities. Specifically, EDGAR will be revised to update Volume I: General Information, Volume II: EDGAR Filing, and Volume III: N-SAR Supplement. The EDGAR system is scheduled to reflect the updates on October 20.
On August 1, the FTC released a staff report on the agency’s review of shopping apps—those used for comparison shopping, to collect and redeem deals and discounts, and to complete in-store purchases. The FTC staff examined information available to consumers before they download the software onto their mobile devices—specifically, information describing how apps that enable consumers to make purchases dealt with fraudulent or unauthorized transactions, billing errors, or other payment-related disputes. The staff also assessed information on how the apps handled consumer data. The FTC staff determined that the apps studied “often failed to provide pre-download information on issues that are important to consumers.” For example, according to the report, few of the in-store purchase apps provided any information prior to download explaining consumers’ liability or describing the app’s process for handling payment-related disputes. In addition, according to the FTC, most linked privacy policies “used vague language that reserved broad rights to collect, use, and share consumer data, making it difficult for readers to understand how the apps actually used consumer data or to compare the apps’ data practices.” The FTC staff recommends that companies that provide mobile shopping apps to consumers: (i) disclose consumers’ rights and liability limits for unauthorized, fraudulent, or erroneous transactions; (ii) clearly describe how they collect, use, and share consumer data; and (iii) ensure that their strong data security promises translate into strong data security practices. The report also includes recommended practices for consumers.
On July 15, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac announced the availability of additional documentation to support the mortgage industry with the implementation of the Uniform Closing Dataset (UCD), the common industry dataset that supports the CFPB’s closing disclosure. The documents provide information to supplement the MISMO mapping document released in March 2014. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac intend to collect the UCD from lenders in the future, but have not yet determined the method or timeline for that data collection.
On June 3, Visa announced that it teamed with Pew Charitable Trusts to develop voluntary prepaid card standards and a designation for cards that meet those standards. To qualify for the designation, which Visa believes “will signify a new level of simplicity, protection and opportunity,” a prepaid card must have the following features: (i) flat monthly fee covering all basic activities; (ii) no additional charges for declined transactions, customer service, in-network ATM withdrawal or balance inquiries, PIN or signature transactions, cash back at point of sale, or overdrafts; (iii) “consumer friendly” communication of fees—e.g. fee box and disclosures; and (iv) “quick-use guide” for using the card at the lowest cost. In addition, issuers seeking the designation must provide the following consumer protections: (i) individual FDIC/NCUA insurance; (ii) Regulation E dispute resolution rights; (iii) coverage under Visa’s zero liability policy; and (iv) access to Visa’s Prepaid Clearinghouse Service to assist with fraud prevention.
On April 17, the CFPB issued a guide to completing the disclosure forms required by its November 2013 TILA-RESPA integrated disclosures rule, which generally applies to transactions for which a creditor or broker receives an application on or after August 1, 2015. The guide provides instructions for completing the Loan Estimate and Closing Disclosure and highlights common situations that may arise when completing the forms. The CFPB states in addition to serving as a resource to creditors, the guide also may assist settlement service providers, software providers, and other service providers. The disclosure forms guide follows the release last month of a small entity compliance guide, which summarizes the rule and highlights issues that small creditors, and their partners or service providers, might find helpful to consider when implementing the rule.
On March 18, the CFPB announced that it has begun testing two potential model prepaid card disclosures. After holding field tests last month in Baltimore and this week in Los Angeles, the CFPB plans a final field test next month at a location to be determined. The model forms would provide a standard format for disclosing certain fees, including, among others, monthly, reload, per purchase, ATM withdrawal, and inactivity fees. The two models primarily differ in design—the fees included on the two test models are identical, but for a “decline” fee, which appears only on one of the models.
The field testing follows the CFPB’s May 2012 advance notice of proposed rulemaking soliciting comments to evaluate prepaid cards. The CFPB received hundreds of comments in response to that initial inquiry, and since that time, advocacy groups and members of Congress have continued to pressure the CFPB to take action on prepaid cards. For example, in the last several months, Senate Democrats introduced two prepaid card bills that would establish certain disclosure requirements, and the PEW Charitable Trusts released a paper outlining its latest position and model disclosures.
Finally, in addition to the field testing, the CFPB is seeking comments on the model disclosures through its blog, Twitter, Facebook, or email “from anyone who is interested in making prepaid card disclosures better.” Following completion of the testing, the CFPB expects to propose a rule “later this spring.” That timeline matches one laid out in the CFPB’s most recent rulemaking agenda, in which the Bureau anticipated a proposed rule in May 2014.
On January 6, the U.S. District Court for the District of Utah held that the model TILA rescission disclosure, form H-8, does not clearly and conspicuously disclose the three business day rescission period. Simmons v. Citimortgage Inc., No. 11-171, 2014 WL 37623 (D. Utah Jan. 6, 2014). In this case, two borrowers sued their lender, claiming that the lender improperly refused to rescind the borrowers’ loan within the statutory three-day rescission period. The borrowers, who closed on a Wednesday and sought rescission the following Monday, claimed that their rescission attempt fell within the three business day window granted by TILA. The lender countered that Regulation Z defines Saturday as a business day and therefore the borrowers’ request was untimely. On summary judgment, the court determined that the rescission disclosure the lender provided to the borrowers, model disclosure form H-8, did not clearly and conspicuously disclose the date the rescission period expired. The court explained that the model disclosure is subject to more than one sensible reading and required the borrowers to conduct further research into the meaning of “business day.” The court reasoned that the fact that the borrowers were required to do anything to understand the notice is sufficient to disqualify the notice from being “clear and conspicuous.” The court granted partial summary judgment to the individual borrowers, holding that the borrowers are entitled to the three-year rescission period, and invited further briefing as to whether the borrowers have otherwise met their rescission burden.
Federal District Court Holds Evidence Of Online Notice Regarding Arbitration Policy Change Alone Insufficient To Support Arbitration Demand
On December 2, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California denied a bank’s motion to compel arbitration, in part because the bank failed to provide evidence that its customer received an online notice of a contract change that added the arbitration clause. Martin v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., No. 12-6030, slip op. (N.D. Cal. Dec. 2, 2013). In this case, a bank customer filed suit alleging the bank violated the Telephone Consumer Protection Act and the state’s Unfair Competition Law. The bank moved to compel arbitration, claiming that it properly amended the controlling customer agreement to include the arbitration clause at issue by providing written notice in a billing insert, and by providing the same notice online to customers who logged into their account. The court held that the bank failed to demonstrate the customer logged on to her online account and received the notice at issue. Similarly, the court explained that the bank’s supporting declaration only stated that the customer’s account was “targeted to receive” the written notice, but the bank did not state the customer actually was provided with the notice. The court also questioned whether the amendment adding the arbitration clause was fair, explaining that the original customer agreement allowed the bank to amend “charges, fees, or other information contained in the disclosure” and suggested that the original agreement’s terms did not indicate the addition of an arbitration agreement was an anticipated modification.