Florida Fourth District Court of Appeals Rules in Bank’s Favor in Foreclosure Action Based on an eNote

On April 20, a Florida District Court of Appeals issued an opinion affirming a lower court’s final judgment in favor of a bank (Bank) in a foreclosure action against borrowers who signed a mortgage note electronically (eNote). Rivera v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., No. 4D14-2273 (Fla. App. April 20, 2016). In the proceedings below, the Bank had presented a sworn certificate of authentication which articulated, among other things, the Bank’s role as servicer of the eNote for Fannie Mae, and describing the Bank’s practices and systems used for the receipt and storage of authoritative copies of electronic records and for protecting electronic records against alteration. The Bank also provided evidence from the same system records and the records of MERSCORP, Inc., as provided for in the terms of the eNote itself, showing that the eNote was last transferred to Fannie Mae and that the authoritative copy of the eNote was maintained in the Bank’s systems as Fannie Mae’s custodian. On appeal, the borrowers challenged the adequacy of the Bank’s demonstration that the eNote had properly transferred to Fannie Mae, thus challenging the Bank’s standing to enforce the eNote and foreclose the mortgage as Fannie Mae’s authorized representative.  Read more…


Iowa Governor Signs Bill to Amend Motor Vehicle Purchase Agreement Requirements

On April 13, Governor Terry Branstad signed into law SF 2228, the Motor Vehicle Records and Dealer Licensing Act. The act amends Chapter 321 of Iowa Code 2016 to, among other things, require that the full price of the “documentary fee” included in the purchase of a motor vehicle be “clearly and conspicuously disclosed in any motor vehicle purchase agreement with the customer.” Defined as “a fee that may be charged to a customer by a motor vehicle dealer for the preparation of documents related to an application for motor vehicle registration and an application for issuance of a certificate of title, and the performance of other related services for the customer,” a documentary fee excludes costs or fees charged to a motor vehicle dealer or a dealer’s customer by a third party. For each vehicle sold in a transaction, a documentary fee is limited to $180, unless a form of electronic applications, titling, registering, and transfers is involved, at which point the documentary fee cannot exceed $155. Pursuant to SF 2228, the Department of Transportation must establish and implement a program to allow for electronic applications, titling, registering, and funds transfers for vehicles subject to registration by January 1, 2018.


Federal Reserve Announces Off-Site Electronic Loan File Review Process

On April 19, the Federal Reserve issued a letter announcing a new off-site loan file review program available to banking institutions with less than $50 billion in total assets. According to the letter, recent technological advancements, i.e. secure data transmission and electronic file imaging, allow the Federal Reserve to collect and review loan file information off-site “without compromising the effectiveness of the examination process.” To determine if the off-site loan review program is appropriate for an institution, the Federal Reserve will consider the following: (i) if the institution uses a secure transmission method to submit the loan file data; (ii) if the institution can provide loan data and imaged documents that are legible, easily viewable, and properly organized; and (iii) if the loan files are sufficiently comprehensive, allowing examiners to reach a conclusion regarding the appropriate rating of a credit without requesting additional information. Regarding adjustments to the examination process of an off-site loan review, the letter cautions that examiners will need to allocate sufficient time before an examination begins to ensure loan file data was successfully transmitted to the Reserve Bank, and communicate with institutional management throughout the examination process. Finally, the letter discusses the scope of the off-site examination process verses that of an on-site examination process, noting that (i) certain portions of examination work will remain off-site regardless of whether the institution is participating in the new off-site program; and (ii) at examiners’ discretion, Reserve Banks “may hold either off-site or on-site discussions with the institution’s management regarding preliminary loan review findings such as the appropriateness of individual credit ratings assigned by [a state member bank or foreign banking organization] and the completeness of credit file documentation.”


Connecticut Supreme Court Affirms Judgment of Trial Court; Rules in Favor of Legislature’s Right to Triple Mortgage Recording Fees for MERS

Recently, the Connecticut Supreme Court affirmed a trial court’s judgment upholding the Connecticut legislature’s right to impose increased mortgage recording fees on the Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems (MERS). Merscorp Holdings, Inc. v. Malloy No. 19376 (Conn. Dec. 2015). In June 2013, the state’s legislature amended the statute governing the state’s public land records system by creating a two tiered fee structure for a mortgage nominee operating a national electronic database to track residential mortgage loans. The state’s amendment ultimately demanded a $159 fee for the first page of a document MERS files and a $5 fee for each additional page filed; in contrast, the recording fee for transactions not involving MERS is $53 for the first page and $5 for each additional page. In 2013, MERS sued Connecticut on the grounds that the amendment violated the due process and equal protection provisions of the state and federal constitutions. As a registry conducting business nationwide, MERS further contended that the state violated the dormant commerce clause of the federal constitution by discriminating against interstate commerce. Read more…

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Special Alert: CFPB Issues Guidance Regarding Preauthorized Debit Transactions Under the Electronic Fund Transfer Act and Regulation E

On November 23, 2015, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) released Compliance Bulletin 2015-06 (“Bulletin”), which provides industry guidance on the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (“EFTA”) and Regulation E requirements for obtaining consumer authorizations for preauthorized electronic fund transfers (“EFTs”). The CFPB issued this Bulletin, in part, because it observed during its examinations that some companies are not fully complying with the EFTA and Regulation E. Principally, this Bulletin addresses two areas of concern: (i) obtaining the customer’s authorization for preauthorized EFTs over the telephone; and (ii) providing a copy of the authorization to the customer. Read more…