On September 30, the CFPB published a white paper claiming that manufactured-home owners typically pay higher interest rates for their loans than site-built borrowers. The white paper cites data in support showing that a greater share of manufactured-housing loans are classified as higher-priced mortgage loans or “high-cost” loans. The white paper further discusses the CFPB’s findings that: (i) manufactured homeowners are likely to be older, live in a rural area, and have a lower net worth than site-built borrowers; (ii) manufactured homes typically cost less than site-built homes; (iii) about three-fifths of manufactured-housing residents who own their home also own the land it is sited on; (iv) approximately 65 percent of borrowers who own their land and financed the purchase of their manufactured home between 2001 and 2010 did so using a chattel loan (rather than a manufactured-housing loan); and (v) manufactured-housing production contracted in the 2000s. The white paper does not propose any formal rule or guidance related to manufactured-housing. Rather, it indicates that the CFPB will continue to analyze facets of the manufactured-housing market to identify ways to fill in gaps in available data about that market. For example, the white paper states that the CFPB is considering adding a data field to the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act’s reporting requirements that would indicate whether a manufactured-housing loan is secured by real or personal property.
On October 28, the CFPB released the fifth edition of its Supervisory Highlights report. The report highlighted the CFPB’s recent supervisory findings of regulatory violations and UDAAP violations relating to consumer reporting, debt collection, deposits, mortgage servicing and student loan servicing. The report also provided updated supervisory guidance regarding HMDA reporting relating to HMDA data resubmission standards. With respect to consumer reporting, the report identified a variety of violations of FCRA Section 611 regarding dispute resolution. The report noted findings of several FDCPA and UDAAP violations in connection with debt collection, including: (i) unlawful imposition of convenience fees; (ii) false threats of litigation; (iii) improper disclosures to third parties; and (iv) unfair practices with respect to debt sales. For deposits, the report identified several Regulation E violations found, including: (i) error resolution violations; (ii) liability for unauthorized transfers; and (iii) notice deficiencies. The report outlines four main compliance issues identified in the mortgage servicing industry: (i) new mortgage servicing rules regarding oversight of service providers; (ii) delays in finalizing permanent loan modifications; (iii) misleading borrowers about the status of permanent loan modifications; and (iv) inaccurate communications regarding short sales. Finally, the report outlines six practices at student loan servicers that could constitute UDAAP violations: (i) allocating the payments borrowers make to each loan, which results in minimum late fees on all loans and inevitable delinquent statuses; (ii) inflating the minimum payment due on periodic and online account statements; (iii) charging late fees when payments were received during the grace period; (iv) failing to give borrowers accurate information needed to deduct loan interest payments on tax filings; (v) providing false information regarding the “dischargeable” status of a loan in bankruptcy; and (vi) making debt collection calls to borrowers outside appropriate hours.
On September 22, the FFIEC announced an update to its online database for analyzing HMDA data and the CFPB announced updates to the agency’s corresponding HMDA tools. Originally launched in September 2013, the tool focuses on the number of mortgage applications and originations, in addition to loan purposes and loan types, and allows the public to see nationwide summaries or employ interactive features to isolate the information for metropolitan areas. The updated database includes 2013 data of approximately 17 million records from 7,190 financial institutions. In both Director Cordray’s 2013 remarks and blog post, the CFPB appeared to indicate that HMDA data may be used to identify institutions that may be discriminating against protected classes of borrowers. On Monday, the Bureau encouraged the public to view the introductory video, maps and charts, data, and share their ideas and findings through its Twitter account.
On July 24, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the CFPB or Bureau) issued a proposed rule that would expand the scope of the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data reporting requirements and streamline certain existing reporting requirements. Although some of the new data points the Bureau is proposing to collect were expressly mandated by the Dodd-Frank Act, the Bureau also proposed a significant number of new data points based on discretionary rulemaking authority granted by the Act.
While we describe the proposal below in greater detail, highlights include:
- The proposal would substantially expand the number of data points collected from financial institutions, including requiring reporting of rate spreads on all loans, not just high cost loans. At least initially, however, this additional information would not be provided to the public on the Loan Application Register (LAR). Instead, the proposal states that the Bureau is still examining privacy concerns related to this information.
- The proposal would require financial institutions to report home equity lines of credit (HELOCs), reverse mortgages, and commercial loans secured by a dwelling.
- The proposal does not provide clarification on the definition of an “application” or the “broker rule.”
Those wishing to comment on the proposal must do so by October 22, 2014. Click here to view the special alert.
On July 24, the CFPB issued a proposed rule to expand the scope of HMDA data reporting requirements. Section 1094 of the Dodd-Frank Act transferred responsibility for HMDA and Regulation C to the CFPB and directed the CFPB to conduct a rulemaking to expand the collection of mortgage origination data to include, among other things: (i) the length of the loan; (ii) total points and fees; (iii) the length of any teaser or introductory interest rates; (iv) the applicant or borrower’s age and credit score; and (v) the channel through which the application was made. The Dodd-Frank Act also granted the CFPB discretion to collect additional information as it sees fit. The proposed rule would implement all of the new data points required by the Dodd-Frank Act, and also would utilize the CFPB’s discretionary authority to substantially expand the number of new data points required to be reported. In addition, the CFPB’s proposal would require reporting for all dwelling-secured loans, which would include some loans not currently covered by Regulation C, including reverse mortgages, and all home equity lines of credit irrespective of their purpose. The proposal follows a review initiated by the CFPB earlier this year to assess of the potential impacts of a HMDA rulemaking on small businesses. The CFPB released a summary of that review with the proposed rule. Comments on the proposal are due by October 22, 2014. We are reviewing the proposed rule and plan to provide a more detailed summary in the coming days.
On February 7, the CFPB announced the first public phase of its rulemaking to expand the scope of HMDA data reporting, as required by the Dodd-Frank Act. The CFPB is asking small businesses to provide feedback on its initial proposal to collect new mortgage origination data from financial institutions and potential changes to the data collection and reporting process.
Proposed Data Requirements
Section 1094 of the Dodd-Frank Act transferred responsibility for HMDA and its implementing regulation to the CFPB and directed the CFPB to conduct a rulemaking to expand the collection of mortgage origination data to include, among other things: (i) the length of the loan; (ii) total points and fees; (iii) the length of any teaser or introductory interest rates; (iv) the applicant or borrower’s age and credit score; and (v) the channel through which the application was made. The Dodd-Frank Act granted the CFPB discretion to collect additional information as it sees fit.
As detailed in its outline for small businesses, in addition to the statutorily required fields, the CFPB also is considering requiring financial institutions to report more underwriting and pricing information, such as the interest rate, the total origination charges, and the total discount points of the loan, which the CFPB believes will help regulators investigate “true trouble spots” in the mortgage market. The Bureau also states that it is considering new requirements that would “more accurately capture access to credit in the mortgage market.” Specifically, the CFPB is considering requiring institutions to (i) provide an explanation of rejected loan applications; (ii) explain whether the institution considers a loan to be a Qualified Mortgage; and (iii) report the borrower’s debt-to-income ratio. The CFPB states that debt-to-income data would allow the Bureau to determine whether financial institutions are making loans that are unsuitable for borrowers. Read more…
On December 30, the CFPB announced final rules adjusting the asset-size thresholds under Regulation C (HMDA) and Regulation Z (TILA). Both rules take effect on January 1, 2014.
HMDA and Regulation C require certain lenders to collect and report data about mortgage application, origination, and purchase activity, and make such data available to the public. Institutions that have an asset level below a certain dollar threshold are exempt from the requirements of Regulation C. The final rule increases the asset-size exemption threshold for banks, savings associations, and credit unions from $42 million to $43 million, thereby exempting institutions with assets of $43 million or less as of December 31, 2013, from collecting HDMA data in 2014.
TILA and Regulation Z, among other things, require creditors to establish escrow accounts when originating higher-priced mortgage loans. However, TILA exempts certain entities from this requirement, including entities that meet an asset-size threshold established by the CFPB. The final rule increases this asset-size exemption threshold from $2 billion to $2.028 billion, thereby exempting creditors with assets of $2.028 billion or less as of December 31, 2013, from the requirement to establish escrow accounts for higher-priced mortgage loans in 2014.
On October 9, the CFPB (or Bureau) announced it had assessed civil money penalties totaling $459,000 against two financial institutions—one bank and one nonbank—after examinations identified significant data errors in mortgage loans reported pursuant to the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). The Bureau simultaneously issued a HMDA bulletin to all mortgage lenders regarding the elements of an effective HMDA compliance management system, resubmission thresholds, and factors the Bureau may consider when evaluating whether to pursue a public HMDA enforcement action and related civil money penalties.
According to the consent orders (available here and here), both financial institutions maintained inadequate HMDA compliance systems that resulted in the reporting of “severely compromised mortgage lending data.” The nonbank, which reported 21,015 applications in its 2011 HMDA Loan Application Register (LAR), agreed to pay a penalty of $425,000. The consent order notes previous violations identified by the state regulator and states that the Bureau sampled 32 loans and concluded that the sample error rate unreasonably exceeded the Bureau’s resubmission threshold, although the error rate was not disclosed. The investigation of the nonbank was conducted in cooperation with the Massachusetts Division of Banks, which announced its own consent order imposing a $50,000 administrative fine at the same time that the CFPB announced its order. The bank, which reported 5,785 applications in its 2011 HMDA LAR, agreed to pay a penalty of $34,000. The consent order against the bank states that the bank’s sample error rate was 38 percent but does not disclose the size of the sample. Both institutions will be required to correct and resubmit their 2011 HMDA data and develop and implement an effective HMDA compliance management system to prevent future violations. Neither of the orders reveals the specific deficiencies in the institutions’ HMDA compliance programs. Read more…
On September 18, the CFPB launched a new web-based tool for use in analyzing HMDA data. The CFPB explains that its new HMDA tool focuses on the number of mortgage applications and originations, in addition to loan purposes and loan types for 2010 through 2012, and allows the public to see nationwide summaries or employ interactive features to isolate the information for metropolitan areas. The CFPB is planning additional features for the site, including (i) “easy-to-use tools” that allow users to filter HMDA records and create summary tables and (ii) an application programming interface that will allow researchers and software developers to incorporate the CFPB-provided HMDA data into other applications and visualizations. During a CFPB Consumer Advisory Board meeting at which the new tool was demonstrated, Director Cordray explained that the CFPB’s HMDA tool is designed to enhance the value of the HMDA data to help identify potentially discriminatory lending patterns and determine whether lenders are serving the housing needs of their communities.
The launch corresponded with the FFIEC’s annual HMDA data release. The release provides data on mortgage lending transactions—including applications, originations, purchases and sales of loans, denials, and other actions related to applications—provided by 7,400 U.S. financial institutions covered by HMDA for the 2012 calendar year. The FFIEC release notes that 2012 HMDA data are the first to use the census tract delineations and population and housing characteristic data from the 2010 Census and from the American Community Survey and that the boundaries of many census tracts have been revised in the process of transitioning to the 2010 Census, and cautions users that boundary changes and updates to the population and housing characteristics of census tracts complicate intertemporal analysis of the annual HMDA data. The release further advises users that while the HMDA data can inform analysis of fair lending compliance, the HMDA data alone cannot be used to determine whether a lender is complying with fair lending laws because they do not include many potential determinants of creditworthiness and loan pricing, such as the borrower’s credit history, debt-to-income ratio, and the loan-to-value ratio.
On April 18, the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council published the 2013 Guide to HMDA Reporting. The updated edition reflects the transfer of HMDA and Regulation C authority to the CFPB, updates previously announced asset-size threshold exemption adjustments, and includes minor technical changes.
On March 29, the CFPB released its third semiannual report, which covers the Bureau’s activities from July 1, 2012 through December 31, 2012. The report reviews, among other things, the CFPB’s supervision, enforcement, and rulemaking activities over the subject period. With regard to fair lending, the report confirms that the CFPB is developing a fair-lending focused component of its Compliance Analysis Solution system that collects, validates, and analyzes loan portfolio data, and highlights previously reported fair lending activities, including those in its December 2012 fair lending report. The report also touches on many other familiar topics – it again reviews the CFPB’s complaint handling process and summarizes complaints received to date, discusses challenges consumers have reported with regard to student loan obligations, and highlights “shopping challenges” allegedly present in small dollar lending. Finally, the report provides vague timeframes for rulemakings, including the CFPB’s plan to (i) “accelerate work on” amendments to HMDA to require creditors to collect and report additional lending data, and (ii) propose a prepaid card rule in 2013.
On March 12, the Chicago-based Woodstock Institute released research claiming that mortgage lenders discriminate against female applicants. The research is presented in a “fact sheet” and previews a longer report the group plans to publish later this year. The study reviewed 2010 HMDA data on first lien single-family home purchase and refinance mortgage applications in the Chicago area and purports to show that (i) female-headed joint applications are much less likely to be originated than male-headed joint applications and (ii) this disparity holds true across all racial categories and is most pronounced for African American women. The Woodstock Institute further claims that these disparities are more pronounced for refinance loans. Based on its conclusions, the group urges federal regulators and enforcement authorities to conduct further investigation, including through enforcement of HUD’s recently finalized disparate impact rule. It also recommends that the CFPB prioritize enhancing the HMDA rules to make public more information to better identify discriminatory lending practices.
On December 31, the CFPB published a final rule to amend the official commentary that interprets the requirements of Regulation C, which implements the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA), to increase the asset-size exemption threshold for financial institutions. HMDA and Regulation C require most mortgage lenders located in metropolitan areas to collect and report data about applications for, and originations and purchases of, home loans and refinancings, which the CFPB uses to identify possible discriminatory lending patterns and to assess whether financial institutions are serving the housing needs of their communities. Effective immediately, banks, savings associations, and credit unions with assets of $42 million or less as of December 31, 2012, are exempt from collecting data in 2013. Regulation C requires the CFPB to adjust the asset threshold based on the year-to-year change in the average of the CPI–W, not seasonally adjusted, for each 12-month period ending in November, rounded to the nearest million. During the 12-month period ending in November 2012, the CPI–W increased by 2.23 percent, resulting in an increase in the threshold from $41 million to $42 million.
Special Alert: CFPB and DOJ Announce MOU to Coordinate Fair Lending Enforcement Efforts; CFPB Issues First Annual Report to Congress on Fair Lending Activities
On December 6, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB or Bureau) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) announced a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to coordinate enforcement of the federal fair lending laws, including the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA). Simultaneously, the CFPB issued its first annual Fair Lending Report to Congress as required by the Dodd-Frank Act, which describes the Bureau’s efforts to build its Office of Fair Lending and Equal Opportunity and reviews its fair lending accomplishments. Together, these initiatives demonstrate that the CFPB and DOJ are continuing to work together closely to aggressively enforce the federal fair lending laws.
Memorandum of Understanding Regarding Fair Lending Coordination
The new MOU supplements an existing Information Sharing Agreement Regarding Fair Lending Investigations among the DOJ, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Federal Trade Commission, which allows these fair lending enforcement agencies to share confidential information related to fair lending investigations, screening procedures, and investigative techniques. It also follows a general cooperation MOU that the DOJ and CFPB entered into earlier this year.
The new MOU focuses on information sharing and referral of matters alleging ECOA violations, but also governs the agencies’ referral processes for other fair lending-related laws and joint fair lending investigations.
Referral of ECOA Violations to DOJ: The MOU explains the circumstances under which the CFPB will refer potential ECOA violations to the DOJ for further investigation or prosecution. Consistent with the established practice of the prudential federal bank regulators, the MOU requires the CFPB to refer to the DOJ all matters where it has “reason to believe” that one or more creditors has engaged in a pattern or practice of lending discrimination. The CFPB may also refer to DOJ any violation of Section 701(a) of ECOA, including a recommendation that a civil action be commenced if the CFPB cannot obtain compliance from the financial institution.
Following referral, the DOJ has 60 days to determine whether to proceed with its own investigation. Within that period, the CFPB may not unilaterally commence its own action with regard to the referred violation(s). Even if exigent circumstances arise during the 60-day review period, the CFPB must first consult with the DOJ before taking independent action. Read more…
In an annual rite of autumn, on September 18 the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council released 2011 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data for U.S. mortgage lenders. The public data contains information regarding nearly all home mortgage applications acted on in the prior calendar year, designated by loan purpose (i.e., home purchase, home refinance and home improvement). The HMDA data covers home loan applications made to over 7,600 U.S. financial institutions, including banks, savings associations, credit unions and mortgage companies, and contains information on approximately 11.7 million applications, 7.1 million originations and 2.9 million purchases.
HMDA data provides a wealth of mortgage industry-related information, including data on application and loan volume, the proportion of loans backed by the Fair Housing Administration and Veterans Administration, and lender concentration in the mortgage market. However, its most important function and the reason HMDA was enacted is the role the data plays in fair lending enforcement. Toward this end, the outcome of each home mortgage loan application is classified according to the applicant’s race, ethnicity and gender. HMDA data further allows analyses based on the site of the subject property, as well as the location of the lender. Read more…