This week, New York State Department of Financial Services (NY DFS) Superintendent Benjamin Lawsky presided over a two-day hearing regarding emerging virtual currencies and the appropriate role of regulation. The hearing was the next step in an inquiry announced last August, and was held as the NY DFS considers developing a state license specific to virtual currency that would subject operators to state oversight. The panels featured the views of private investors, virtual currency firms, regulatory experts, and law enforcement officials. From our view inside the room, the most prominent, theme to emerge is that regulators will need to strike a balance between protecting the public interest—both from a consumer protection standpoint and with regard to the potential for criminal activity—while allowing emerging virtual currency technologies to develop, evolve, and thrive. Read more…
FinCEN Releases Additional Guidance Related To Virtual Currency Mining, Software, And Investment Activity
On January 30, FinCEN issued two rulings related to virtual currency mining and virtual currency software development and investment activity. The guidance clarifies FinCEN’s previous convertible virtual currency guidance. In FIN-2014-R001, FinCEN explains that miners of Bitcoins, whether individuals or corporations, who are engaging in mining solely for the miner’s own personal purpose are “users” of virtual currency and not MSBs under FinCEN’s previous guidance. FinCEN found this to be the case even if the miner from time to time must convert the mined Bitcoins into real currency or another convertible virtual currency so long as the conversion is solely for the miner’s own purposes and not as a business service performed for the benefit of another. In FIN-2014-R002, FinCEN states that a company that develops its own software to purchase virtual currency for its own account and to resell the virtual currency at the company’s own discretion and based on the company’s own investment decisions also is not an MSB under FinCEN’s prior guidance.
On January 23, the CFPB proposed a rule that would allow the agency to supervise nonbank “larger participants” in the international money transfer market. The proposed rule defines “larger participant” to include any entity that provides one million or more international money transfers annually, which the CFPB estimates will extend oversight to roughly 25 of the largest providers in the market. Providers that do not meet the million-transfer threshold may still be subject to the CFPB’s supervisory authority if the Bureau has reasonable cause to determine they pose risk to consumers. Although the CFPB proposes to use aggregate annual international money transfers as the criterion for establishing which entities are “larger participants” of the international money transfer market, the CFPB also considered and has requested comment on use of annual receipts from international money transfers and annual transmitted dollar volume as potential alternatives.
The CFPB suggests that examinations of such providers will focus on compliance with the Remittance Rule—particularly with respect to new requirements addressing disclosures, cancellation options, and error corrections—and that the agency will “coordinate [examinations] with appropriate State regulatory authorities.” The CFPB released examination procedures for use in assessing compliance with the remittance transfer requirements last year.
Dodd-Frank granted the CFPB authority to supervise “larger participants” in the consumer financial space, as defined by rule. The agency has already finalized similar rules covering “larger participants” in student loan servicing, debt collection, and consumer reporting markets. The proposal, if finalized, would be the fourth larger-participant rule adopted by the CFPB.
A CFPB factsheet on the proposal is available here. The CFPB will accept comments for 60 days from publication of the proposed rule in the Federal Register.
On November 14, New York State Department of Financial Services (DFS) Superintendent Benjamin Lawsky issued a notice that the DFS intends to hold a public hearing on virtual currency regulation in New York City “in the coming months.” The hearing will focus on the interconnection between money transmission regulations and virtual currencies. Additionally, the hearing is expected to consider the need for and feasibility of a licensing regime specific to virtual currency transactions and activities (i.e. a “BitLicense”), which would include anti-money laundering and consumer protection requirements for licensed entities. The notice makes clear that no decisions on licensing or other regulation of virtual currencies has been made. Rather the hearing and license notice is part of the agency’s broader inquiry launched in August into the need for a regulatory framework specific to virtual currencies. With regard to potential licensing, the DFS would like stakeholders to consider: (i) what, if any, specific types of virtual currency transactions and activities should require a BitLicense; (ii) whether entities that are issued a BitLicense should be required to follow specifically tailored anti-money laundering or consumer protection guidelines; and (iii) whether entities that are issued a BitLicense should be required to follow specifically tailored regulatory examination requirements.
On October 22, the CFPB released the procedures its examiners will use in assessing financial institutions’ compliance with the remittance transfer requirements of Regulation E. Amendments to those regulations, finalized by the CFPB earlier this year, are set to take effect October 28, 2013. In general, the rule requires remittance transfer providers that offer remittances as part of their “normal course of business” to: (i) provide written pre-payment disclosures of the exchange rates and fees associated with a transfer of funds as well as the amount of funds the recipient will receive; and (ii) investigate consumer disputes and remedy errors. The rule does not apply to financial institutions that consistently provide 100 or fewer remittance transfers each year, or to transactions under $15.
The new examination procedures detail the specific objectives examiners should pursue as part of the examination, including to: (i) assess the quality of the regulated entity’s compliance risk management systems with respect to its remittance transfer business; (ii) identify acts or practices relating to remittance transfers that materially increase the risk of violations of federal consumer financial law and associated harm to consumers; (iii) gather facts that help to determine whether a supervised entity engages in acts or practices that are likely to violate federal consumer financial law; and (iv) determine whether a violation of a federal consumer financial law has occurred and, if so, whether further supervisory or enforcement actions are appropriate. In doing so, CFPB examiners will look not only at potential risks related to the remittance regulations, but also outside the remittance rule to assess “other risks to consumers,” including potential unfair, deceptive, and abusive acts and practices and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act privacy violations. Finally, consistent with other examination procedures published by the CFPB, the examiners are instructed to conduct both a management- and policy-level review as well as a transaction-level review to inform the stated examination objectives.
Also on October 22, the CFPB announced a new tool designed to make it easier for the public to navigate the regulations subject to CFPB oversight. To start, the new eRegulations tool includes only Regulation E, which implements the Electronic Funds Transfer Act and includes the remittance requirements discussed above. Noting that federal regulations can be difficult to navigate, the CFPB redesigned the electronic presentation of its regulations, including by (i) defining key terms throughout, (ii) providing official interpretations throughout, (iii) linking certain sections of the “Federal Register preambles” to help explain the background of a particular paragraph, and (iv) providing the ability to see previous, current, and future versions. The CFPB notes that the tool is a work in progress and that suggestions from the public are welcome. Further, the CFPB encourages other agencies, developers, or groups to use and adapt the system.
On September 4, the FTC’s Bureau of Competition issued an advisory opinion responding to a national money transmitters’ trade association inquiry about its planned information exchange regarding terminated U.S. money transmitter agents. According to the opinion, (i) the database will contain information regarding former U.S. sending and receiving agents whose contractual relationships were terminated due to failure to comply with federal and/or state law, or money transmitter contract terms or policies, (ii) exchange membership will be open to all licensed non-bank money transmitters, and (iii) participation in the information exchange will be voluntary, and each member of the information exchange will retain the right to decide unilaterally whether to appoint an agent that has been terminated by another exchange member. The FTC staff determined that the program (i) appears unlikely to harm competition, (ii) will contain several safeguards to lessen the risk of harm to competition and consumers, such as the appointment of a third-party vendor to maintain and secure the information exchange database, and (iii) is likely to improve the money transmitters’ ability to comply with federal and state laws designed to prevent money laundering, terrorist financing, and other criminal behavior, and enhance consumer welfare by preventing the appointment of fraudulent or criminal money transmitter agents.
CFPB Releases Consumer Reporting and Money Transfer Complaints, Expands Complaint Database Functionality
On May 31, the CFPB published for the first time consumer complaints about credit reporting, which the CFPB began accepting in October 2012, and money transfer complaints, which it began accepting in April 2013. The CFPB also announced that all complaints in its consumer complaint database now include a field for the state from which the complaint was filed. That field allows the CFPB to report, for example, that the top states for per capita mortgage complaints are (i) New Hampshire, (ii) Maryland, (iii) the District of Columbia, (iv) Georgia, and (v) Florida.
On May 9, Indiana enacted HB 1081, which makes numerous changes to the state’s consumer lending, licensing, and banking laws. Among those changes, the bill increases the threshold loan amounts under various definitions in the Uniform Consumer Credit Code, including “consumer credit sale,” “consumer loan,” and “consumer related loan.” With regard to mortgage originator licensing, the bill (i) revises the surety bond requirements for creditors and entities exempt from licensing that employ a licensed mortgage loan originator, (ii) prohibits an unlicensed individual or an unlicensed organization to act as a closing agent in a first lien mortgage transaction, and (iii) empowers the Department of Financial Institutions (DFI) to investigate any licensee or person that the DFI suspects is operating without a license or in violation of the First Lien Mortgage Lending Act. The bill provides additional guidelines for filing an article of dissolution of a bank, trust company, or a building and loan association. It also makes changes to the certain powers of banks and trust companies. In addition, the bill make numerous amendments related to debt management companies, lead generators, and other consumer financial service providers, and revises requirements for money transmitter licensing by, for example, authorizing the DFI to designate the NMLS for licensing purposes.
On April 30, the CFPB issued a revised final rule to amend regulations applicable to consumer remittance transfers of over fifteen dollars originating in the United States and sent internationally. Generally, the rule requires remittance transfer providers to (i) provide written pre-payment disclosures of the exchange rates and fees associated with a transfer of funds, as well as the amount of funds the recipient will receive, and (ii) investigate consumer disputes and remedy errors. The revised rule makes optional the original requirement to disclose (i) recipient institution fees for transfers to an account, except where the recipient institution is acting as an agent of the provider and (ii) taxes imposed by a person other than the remittance transfer provider. Instead, the revised rule requires providers to include a disclaimer on disclosures that the recipient may receive less than the disclosed total value due to these two categories of fees and taxes. The revised rule exempts from certain error resolution requirements two additional errors: (i) providing an incorrect account number or (ii) providing an incorrect recipient institution identifier. For the exception to apply, a remittance transfer provider must (i) notify the sender prior to the transfer that the transfer amount could be lost, (ii) implement reasonable measures to verify the accuracy of a recipient institution identifier, and (iii) make reasonable efforts to retrieve misdirected funds. In addition, the revised rule provides institutions more time to comply with the new remittance transfer standards. The final regulations, as revised by this rule, take effect on October 28, 2013.
On April 4, the CFPB announced that it is collecting money transfer complaints. Although the CFPB previously was accepting some complaints about money transfers under the “bank account” topic in its complaint system, it now has a complaint portal dedicated to money transfer complaints. The system categorizes complaints as relating to: (i) money was not available when promised; (ii) wrong amount charged or received (transfer amounts, fees, exchange rates, taxes, etc.); (iii) incorrect/missing disclosures or information; (iv) other transaction issues (unauthorized transaction, cancellation, refund, etc.); (v) other service issues (advertising or marketing, pricing, privacy, etc.); or (vi) fraud or scam. The announcement does not indicate whether the money transfer complaints will be published in the recently expanded public database at this time.
On March 20, the NMLS proposed a processing fee to support a uniform and automated method for state-licensed money transmitters to report information concerning authorized agents/delegates to NMLS participating state agencies. The proposal notes that as of March 2013, 10 state agencies manage their money transmitter licenses through NMLS and an additional 20 agencies intend to do so by the end of 2014. The NMLS proposes to support that functionality through a fee of no more than fifty cents ($.50) per active agent/delegate location, assessed once per year, based on the number of all active agent/delegate locations as of a certain date. Money transmitter licensees with less than 100 active agent/delegate locations reported through NMLS will not be assessed a fee. The fee, which is distinct from and independent of fees or assessments required by state agencies, would be charged starting in 2014. The NMLS seeks comments on the proposal by April 19, 2013.
The Nationwide Mortgage Licensing System and Registry (NMLS) held its fifth annual NMLS User Conference and Training in San Antonio, Texas from February 26 through March 1, 2013. The Conference brought together state and federal mortgage regulators, industry professionals, compliance companies, top law firms, and education providers to learn about the latest developments in mortgage supervision and to discuss pressing issues confronting the industry.
The first day of the Conference included the bi-annual NMLS Ombudsman Meeting, which provided an opportunity for NMLS users to raise issues concerning the NMLS, state and/or federal regulation. NMLS Ombudsman Timothy Siwy, Deputy Secretary of Non-Depository Institutions with the Pennsylvania Department of Banking, presided over the meeting, in which specific questions submitted by industry representatives were addressed. Several of the submitted questions focused on the new Uniform State Mortgage Loan Originator (MLO) Exam or Uniform State Test (the UST) of which 24 agencies have already adopted. Concerns were raised by the regulators as some state statutes require that a state’s specific laws be tested as a pre-requisite of MLO licensure. Others, such as regulators from California and Utah, had concerns that MLOs would not adequately learn state specific laws and regulations prior to licensure. In light of these concerns, industry representatives indicated that the UST is only the first step in licensure, and continuing education requirements, monitoring, and examinations would also serve as opportunities to ensure MLOs are well-versed in applicable state specific licensing laws and regulations.
Other areas of focus included NMLS’s expansion to include non-mortgage licenses, such as payday lender and pawn broker licenses. Some industry representatives voiced concern that approval of a license via the NMLS now carries with it an image of legitimacy with the public and expanding licensure to non-mortgage, less regulated industries could undermine that image. Regulators responded that the NMLS is a tracking mechanism—a way for regulators to track licensees state-to-state and industry-to-industry—not an independent licensing credential.
Full details regarding the specific issues submitted for comment, as well as accompanying exhibits, will be available on the NMLS Website, Ombudsman Page. A recording of the Ombudsman Meeting should be posted to the NMLS Resource Center in the near future.
The remaining days of the Conference covered Read more…
On December 21, the CFPB proposed revisions to the remittance transfer rule it finalized earlier this year and already once modified. The proposed revisions follow a November 2012 bulletin from the CFPB in which it stated its intent to pursue a fast-track rulemaking to delay the effective date of the rule while addressing certain industry-raised concerns. The proposed revised rule would (i) provide increased flexibility and guidance with respect to the disclosure of taxes imposed by a foreign country’s central government, as well as fees imposed by a recipient’s institution for receiving a remittance transfer in an account, (ii) require disclosure of foreign taxes imposed by a country’s central government, but would eliminate the requirement to disclose taxes imposed by foreign regional, provincial, state, or other local governments, and (iii) require a provider to attempt to recover funds without bearing the cost of funds that cannot be recovered, when the provider can demonstrate that the consumer provided an incorrect account number and certain other conditions are met. The proposed rule also would push back the effective date of the remittance transfer rule from February 7, 2013, to 90 days after the revised rule is finalized. The CFPB is accepting comments on the delayed effective date for 15 days following publication in the Federal Register, and it is accepting comments on the substantive revisions for 30 days following publication in the Federal Register.
On December 21, the NMLS announced that NMLS Release 2013.1 is planned for March 18, 2013. As summarized in the Release Portfolio, the updated systems will (i) allow state agencies to invoice licensees for various fees, (ii) provide money transmitters the ability to submit periodic reports regarding authorized agents, (iii) allow state regulators to adopt the newly created Uniform State Test Component in lieu of existing State-specific Test Components to satisfy the SAFE Test State Component Requirement, and (iv) display through NMLS Consumer Access self-reported disciplinary actions for federally registered mortgage loan originators.
On November 9, the DOJ announced that a money services business (MSB) agreed to enter into a deferred prosecution agreement (DPA) and pay $100 million for failing to maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and for aiding and abetting wire fraud. The DOJ alleged that over a roughly five year period (2004-2009) the MSB profited on thousands of transactions processed on behalf of agents known to be involved in an international fraud scheme. The MSB’s senior management deferred to sales department executives and ignored recommendations from the MSB’s fraud department that certain agents known to be engaged in fraud be terminated, according to the DOJ. Moreover, the DOJ states that the MSB systematically and willfully failed to meet AML obligations under the Bank Secrecy Act, including by failing to (i) implement policies or procedures to file the required Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs) when victims reported fraud on transactions over $2,000, (ii) file SARs on agents known to be involved in the fraud, (iii) conduct effective AML audits of its agents and outlets, (iv) conduct adequate due diligence on prospective and existing agents by verifying that a legitimate business existed, and (v) sufficiently resource and staff its AML program.
Pursuant to the DPA, the MSB must (i) create an independent compliance and ethics committee of the board of directors with direct oversight of the chief compliance officer and the compliance program, (ii) adopt a global anti-fraud and anti-money laundering standard to ensure that their agents throughout the world will, at a minimum, be required to adhere to U.S. anti-fraud and anti-money laundering standards, (iii) adopt a bonus system that rates all executives on success in meeting compliance obligations, with failure making the executive ineligible for any bonus for that year, and (iv) adopt enhanced due diligence for agents deemed to be high risk or operating in a high-risk area. The MSB also agreed to retain an independent monitor that will oversee implementation and maintenance of these enhanced compliance obligations, evaluate the overall effectiveness of its anti-fraud and anti-money laundering programs, and report regularly to the DOJ.